Ultrasound probes are a potential source of HPV infection, posing a new challenge for infection prevention.

HPV – The facts

HPV is a serious sexually transmitted infection that can lead to cancer. As it becomes more prevalent, patients and clinical staff are increasingly at risk from HPV cross contamination infection.

HPV is one of the most commonly diagnosed sexually transmitted infections in developed countries, so common that most sexually active men and women will have an infection at some point.1,2


High-risk HPV can cause cancer

HPV is an infectious cause of cancer, associated with 5% of all cancers worldwide.4

High-risk HPV can cause cervical cancer as well as cancer of the vulva, vagina, rectum and the penis. Intracavity ultrasound is commonly performed in these body sites and HPV can be spread by cross contamination.

Research shows that virtually all cervical cancers (more than 99%) are caused by high-risk HPV.5 The high risk strains HPV16 and HPV18 together cause 70% of all cervical cancers.3

In Australia, 8.5% of women harbor high risk HPV infection, which is responsible for 76.1% of all invasive cervical cancers in the country.6


The risk of HPV transmission from ultrasound probes

As well as being transmitted sexually, HPV can be passed from one person to another via intracavity or surface ultrasound probes, if probes are not adequately disinfected before use. This alarming reality is backed up by clinical evidence.

Studies show that common disinfection methods, even high level disinfection (HLD) methods, don’t kill the cancer-causing HPV on ultrasound probes.7 The HPV virus can survive and remain infectious on surfaces, including medical equipment, for days or weeks, when treated with common disinfectants.8 Research shows that up to 7% of intracavity probes used in ultrasound examinations remain contaminated with high-risk HPV DNA even after low or intermediate level disinfection.9-11


Learn more about HPV disinfection
trophon is proven to kill HPV1.
Studies showing susceptibility of HPV to disinfectants1,2.


In 2014 a study was conducted in testing typical hospital disinfectants against real native HPV2. The testing concluded that the following disinfectants did not kill HPV16: Ethanol; Isopropanol, GTA, OPA; Phenol; 0.25% PAA-silver. Note: whilst 1.2% PAA-silver and 0.525% Hypochlorite were shown to produce a reduction in infectivity, they are not appropriate to use as chemical disinfectants for ultrasound probes.

In a further clinical study in 2015 surface carrier tests against HPV16 and HPV18 were carried out using trophon. The testing was conducted according to manufacturers’ instructions to simulate normal clinical use conditions (concentration, time, temperature)1. Only trophon was shown to successfully kill HPV 16 and HPV 18.

1. Cutts FT, Franceschi S, Goldie S, Castellsague X, de Sanjose S, Garnett G, Edmunds WJ, Claeys P, Goldenthal KL, Harper DM, Markowitz L. Human papillomavirus and HPV vaccines: a review. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2007;85(9):649-732.
2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Genital HPV Infection – Fact Sheet [Internet]. 2015 [updated 2015 Feb 23; cited 2015 Mar 31]. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/STD/HPV/STDFact-HPV.htm.
3. Taylor S, Bunge E, Bakker M, Castellsagué X. The incidence, clearance and persistence of non-cervical human papillomavirus infections: a systematic review of the literature. BMC Infectious Diseases. 2016;16:293.
4. Parkin DM. The global health burden of infection-associated cancers in the year 2002. International journal of cancer. 2006;118(12):3030-44.
5. Walboomers JM, Jacobs MV, Manos MM, Bosch FX, Kummer JA, Shah KV, et al. Human papillomavirus is a necessary cause of invasive cervical cancer worldwide. J Pathol. 1999;189(1):12-9.
6. ICO Information Centre on HPV and Cancer. United Kingdom – Human Papillomavirus and Related Cancers, Fact Sheet 2016. Available from: http://www.hpvcentre.net/statistics/reports/GBR_FS.pdf.
7. ICO Information Centre on HPV and Cancer. Ireland – Human Papillomavirus and Related Cancers, Fact Sheet 2016. Available from: http://www.hpvcentre.net/statistics/reports/IRL_FS.pdf.
8. Meyers, J., et al., Susceptibility of high-risk human papillomavirus type 16 to clinical disinfectants. J Antimicrob Chemother, 2014.
9. Ryndock E, Robison R, Meyers C. 2015. Susceptibility of HPV16 and 18 to high level disinfectants indicated for semi-critical ultrasound probes. J Med Virol. Published online 13 Nov 2015. DOI 10.1002/jmv.24421.
10. Casalegno et. Al.: High Risk HPV Contamination of Endocavity Vaginal Ultrasound Probes: An Underestimated Route of Nosocomial Infection?, PLOS ONE, Oct 2012, Volume 7, Issue 10.
11. Ma et al.: Transvaginal ultrasound probe contamination by the human papillomavirus in the emergency department, Emerg Med J, 2012.
12. M’Zali et al. Persistence of microbial contamination on transvaginal ultrasound probes despite low-level disinfection procedure. PLoS One 2014;9:e93368.

Infection Control in Ultrasound: Mitigating cross contamination risk

The 2014 study – hospital disinfectants did not kill HPV16

The 2015 study – only trophon kills high-risk HPV16/18

  1. Cutts FT, Franceschi S, Goldie S, Castellsague X, de Sanjose S, Garnett G, Edmunds WJ, Claeys P, Goldenthal KL, Harper DM, Markowitz L. Human papillomavirus and HPV vaccines: a review. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2007;85(9):649-732.
  2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Genital HPV Infection – Fact Sheet [Internet]. 2015 [updated 2015 Feb 23; cited 2015 Mar 31]. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/STD/HPV/STDFact-HPV.htm.
  3. Taylor S, Bunge E, Bakker M, Castellsagué X. The incidence, clearance and persistence of non-cervical human papillomavirus infections: a systematic review of the literature. BMC Infectious Diseases. 2016;16:293.
  4. Parkin DM. The global health burden of infection-associated cancers in the year 2002. International journal of cancer. 2006;118(12):3030-44.
  5. Walboomers JM, Jacobs MV, Manos MM, Bosch FX, Kummer JA, Shah KV, et al. Human papillomavirus is a necessary cause of invasive cervical cancer worldwide. J Pathol. 1999;189(1):12-9.
  6. ICO Information Centre on HPV and Cancer. Australia, Human Papillomavirus and Related Cancers, Fact Sheet. 2017. Available from: http://www.hpvcentre.net/statistics/reports/AUS_FS.pdf Accessed 10 May 2017.
  7. Meyers, J., et al., Susceptibility of high-risk human papillomavirus type 16 to clinical disinfectants.
    J Antimicrob Chemother, 2014.
  8. Ryndock EJ, Meyers C., A risk for non-sexual transmission of human papilloma virus? Expert Rev.
    Anti Infect. Ther. 12(10), 1165-1170 (2014).
  9. Casalegno et. Al.: High Risk HPV Contamination of Endocavity Vaginal Ultrasound Probes: An Underestimated Route of Nosocomial Infection?, PLOS ONE, Oct 2012, Volume 7, Issue.
  10. Ma et al.: Transvaginal ultrasound probe contamination by the human papillomavirus in the emergency department, Emerg Med J, 2012.
  11. M’Zali et al. Persistence of microbial contamination on transvaginal ultrasound probes despite low-level disinfection procedure. PLoS One 2014;9:e93368.
  12. Fishman A et al., A proposal to reduce the risk of transmission of human papilloma virus via transvaginal ultrasound, American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, 2016.

Combat the HPV cross-contamination risk with trophon, the HLD system proven to kill high-risk, cancer-causing HPV.1